PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Canada's growing reputation in financial risk management. Quantitative Financial Risk. The material contained in the Management Accounting Guideline Financial Risk Management for Management. Accountants is designed to provide illustrative. this to the version number of the latest PDF version of the text on the His main research interests are in financial risk management, the.
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Bryan Bergeron. Essentials of Financial Analysis, George T. Friedlob and Lydia L. F. Schleifer. Essentials of Financial Risk Management, Karen A. Horcher. basic definitions and issues related to risk, and the management of financial risk and financial . financial management techniques that eliminate excess risk. Book topics range from portfolio management to e-commerce, risk management, financial engineering, valuation, and financial instrument analysis, as well as.
If you are also open to those risks that create positive opportunities, you can make your project smarter, streamlined and more profitable. Uncertainty is at the heart of risk. You may be unsure if an event is likely to occur or not.
Also, you may be uncertain what its consequences would be if it did occur. Likelihood — the probability of an event occurring, and consequence — the impact or outcome of an event, are the two components that characterize the magnitude of the risk.
All risk management processes follow the same basic steps, although sometimes different jargon is used to describe these steps. Together these 5 risk management process steps combine to deliver a simple and effective risk management process. Step 1: Identify the Risk. You and your team uncover, recognize and describe risks that might affect your project or its outcomes.
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There are a number of techniques you can use to find project risks. During this step you start to prepare your Project Risk Register. Step 2: Analyze the risk. Once risks are identified you determine the likelihood and consequence of each risk. You develop an understanding of the nature of the risk and its potential to affect project goals and objectives.
This information is also input to your Project Risk Register. Step 3: Evaluate or Rank the Risk. You evaluate or rank the risk by determining the risk magnitude, which is the combination of likelihood and consequence. You make decisions about whether the risk is acceptable or whether it is serious enough to warrant treatment.
These risk rankings are also added to your Project Risk Register. Any event that may endanger achieving an objective partly or completely is identified as risk. Scenario-based risk identification — In scenario analysis different scenarios are created. The scenarios may be the alternative ways to achieve an objective, or an analysis of the interaction of forces in, for example, a market or battle.
Any event that triggers an undesired scenario alternative is identified as risk — see Futures Studies for methodology used by Futurists. Taxonomy-based risk identification — The taxonomy in taxonomy-based risk identification is a breakdown of possible risk sources. Based on the taxonomy and knowledge of best practices, a questionnaire is compiled.
The answers to the questions reveal risks. Each risk in the list can be checked for application to a particular situation. Creating a matrix under these headings enables a variety of approaches. One can begin with resources and consider the threats they are exposed to and the consequences of each. Alternatively one can start with the threats and examine which resources they would affect, or one can begin with the consequences and determine which combination of threats and resources would be involved to bring them about.
Main article: Risk assessment Once risks have been identified, they must then be assessed as to their potential severity of impact generally a negative impact, such as damage or loss and to the probability of occurrence.
These quantities can be either simple to measure, in the case of the value of a lost building, or impossible to know for sure in the case of an unlikely event, the probability of occurrence of which is unknown.
Therefore, in the assessment process it is critical to make the best educated decisions in order to properly prioritize the implementation of the risk management plan. Even a short-term positive improvement can have long-term negative impacts. Take the "turnpike" example.
A highway is widened to allow more traffic. More traffic capacity leads to greater development in the areas surrounding the improved traffic capacity. Over time, traffic thereby increases to fill available capacity. Turnpikes thereby need to be expanded in a seemingly endless cycles. There are many other engineering examples where expanded capacity to do any function is soon filled by increased demand. Since expansion comes at a cost, the resulting growth could become unsustainable without forecasting and management.
The fundamental difficulty in risk assessment is determining the rate of occurrence since statistical information is not available on all kinds of past incidents and is particularly scanty in the case of catastrophic events, simply because of their infrequency.
Furthermore, evaluating the severity of the consequences impact is often quite difficult for intangible assets. Asset valuation is another question that needs to be addressed.
Thus, best educated opinions and available statistics are the primary sources of information. Nevertheless, risk assessment should produce such information for senior executives of the organization that the primary risks are easy to understand and that the risk management decisions may be prioritized within overall company goals. Thus, there have been several theories and attempts to quantify risks.
Numerous different risk formulae exist, but perhaps the most widely accepted formula for risk quantification is: "Rate or probability of occurrence multiplied by the impact of the event equals risk magnitude. Periodically re-assess risks that are accepted in ongoing processes as a normal feature of business operations and modify mitigation measures.
Transfer risks to an external agency e. In business it is imperative to be able to present the findings of risk assessments in financial, market, or schedule terms.
Elements of Financial Risk Management
Robert Courtney Jr. IBM, proposed a formula for presenting risks in financial terms. The Courtney formula was accepted as the official risk analysis method for the US governmental agencies. The formula proposes calculation of ALE annualized loss expectancy and compares the expected loss value to the security control implementation costs cost-benefit analysis.
Potential risk treatments[ edit ] Once risks have been identified and assessed, all techniques to manage the risk fall into one or more of these four major categories:  Avoidance eliminate, withdraw from or not become involved Reduction optimize — mitigate Sharing transfer — outsource or insure Retention accept and budget Ideal use of these risk control strategies may not be possible.
Some of them may involve trade-offs that are not acceptable to the organization or person making the risk management decisions. Risk avoidance[ edit ] This includes not performing an activity that could carry risk.
An example would be not downloading a property or business in order to not take on the legal liability that comes with it. Another would be not flying in order not to take the risk that the airplane were to be hijacked. Avoidance may seem the answer to all risks, but avoiding risks also means losing out on the potential gain that accepting retaining the risk may have allowed.
Not entering a business to avoid the risk of loss also avoids the possibility of earning profits. Increasing risk regulation in hospitals has led to avoidance of treating higher risk conditions, in favor of patients presenting with lower risk. For example, sprinklers are designed to put out a fire to reduce the risk of loss by fire. This method may cause a greater loss by water damage and therefore may not be suitable.
Halon fire suppression systems may mitigate that risk, but the cost may be prohibitive as a strategy. Acknowledging that risks can be positive or negative, optimizing risks means finding a balance between negative risk and the benefit of the operation or activity; and between risk reduction and effort applied. By an offshore drilling contractor effectively applying Health, Safety and Environment HSE management in its organization, it can optimize risk to achieve levels of residual risk that are tolerable.
Early methodologies suffered from the fact that they only delivered software in the final phase of development; any problems encountered in earlier phases meant costly rework and often jeopardized the whole project. By developing in iterations, software projects can limit effort wasted to a single iteration.
Outsourcing could be an example of risk sharing strategy if the outsourcer can demonstrate higher capability at managing or reducing risks. This way, the company can concentrate more on business development without having to worry as much about the manufacturing process, managing the development team, or finding a physical location for a center.
Risk sharing[ edit ] Briefly defined as "sharing with another party the burden of loss or the benefit of gain, from a risk, and the measures to reduce a risk.
In practice if the insurance company or contractor go bankrupt or end up in court, the original risk is likely to still revert to the first party.
As such in the terminology of practitioners and scholars alike, the download of an insurance contract is often described as a "transfer of risk. For example, a personal injuries insurance policy does not transfer the risk of a car accident to the insurance company.
The risk still lies with the policy holder namely the person who has been in the accident. Some ways of managing risk fall into multiple categories. Risk retention pools are technically retaining the risk for the group, but spreading it over the whole group involves transfer among individual members of the group.
This is different from traditional insurance, in that no premium is exchanged between members of the group up front, but instead losses are assessed to all members of the group.
Risk retention[ edit ] Risk retention involves accepting the loss, or benefit of gain, from a risk when the incident occurs. True self-insurance falls in this category.
Risk retention is a viable strategy for small risks where the cost of insuring against the risk would be greater over time than the total losses sustained. All risks that are not avoided or transferred are retained by default.
This includes risks that are so large or catastrophic that either they cannot be insured against or the premiums would be infeasible. War is an example since most property and risks are not insured against war, so the loss attributed to war is retained by the insured. Also any amounts of potential loss risk over the amount insured is retained risk.
This may also be acceptable if the chance of a very large loss is small or if the cost to insure for greater coverage amounts is so great that it would hinder the goals of the organization too much. Risk management plan[ edit ] Main article: Risk management plan Select appropriate controls or countermeasures to mitigate each risk. Risk mitigation needs to be approved by the appropriate level of management.
For instance, a risk concerning the image of the organization should have top management decision behind it whereas IT management would have the authority to decide on computer virus risks. The risk management plan should propose applicable and effective security controls for managing the risks.
For example, an observed high risk of computer viruses could be mitigated by acquiring and implementing antivirus software.
Financial Risk Management: A Practical Approach for Emerging Markets
A good risk management plan should contain a schedule for control implementation and responsible persons for those actions. Mitigation of risks often means selection of security controls , which should be documented in a Statement of Applicability, which identifies which particular control objectives and controls from the standard have been selected, and why. Implementation[ edit ] Implementation follows all of the planned methods for mitigating the effect of the risks. download insurance policies for the risks that it has been decided to transferred to an insurer, avoid all risks that can be avoided without sacrificing the entity's goals, reduce others, and retain the rest.
Review and evaluation of the plan[ edit ] Initial risk management plans will never be perfect. Practice, experience, and actual loss results will necessitate changes in the plan and contribute information to allow possible different decisions to be made in dealing with the risks being faced. Risk analysis results and management plans should be updated periodically. There are two primary reasons for this: to evaluate whether the previously selected security controls are still applicable and effective to evaluate the possible risk level changes in the business environment.
For example, information risks are a good example of rapidly changing business environment. Limitations[ edit ] Prioritizing the risk management processes too highly could keep an organization from ever completing a project or even getting started. This is especially true if other work is suspended until the risk management process is considered complete.
It is also important to keep in mind the distinction between risk and uncertainty.
If risks are improperly assessed and prioritized, time can be wasted in dealing with risk of losses that are not likely to occur. Spending too much time assessing and managing unlikely risks can divert resources that could be used more profitably. Unlikely events do occur but if the risk is unlikely enough to occur it may be better to simply retain the risk and deal with the result if the loss does in fact occur.
Qualitative risk assessment is subjective and lacks consistency. The primary justification for a formal risk assessment process is legal and bureaucratic. Areas[ edit ] As applied to corporate finance , risk management is the technique for measuring, monitoring and controlling the financial or operational risk on a firm's balance sheet , a traditional measure is the value at risk VaR , but there also other measures like profit at risk PaR or margin at risk.A version of this article appeared in the June issue of Harvard Business Review.
The Association for Experiential Education offers accreditation for wilderness adventure programs . These risks directly reduce the productivity of knowledge workers, decrease cost-effectiveness, profitability, service, quality, reputation, brand value, and earnings quality.
Financial Risk Management Books
In the beginning of a project, the advancement of technical developments, or threats presented by a competitor's projects, may cause a risk or threat assessment and subsequent evaluation of alternatives see Analysis of Alternatives. Most external risk events, however, require a different analytic approach either because their probability of occurrence is very low or because managers find it difficult to envision them during their normal strategy processes.
For example, sprinklers are designed to put out a fire to reduce the risk of loss by fire. The quantitative methodologies are developed with ample business case discussions and examples illustrating how they are used in practice.
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